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Ammonia solution (CAS 1336-21-6)
Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammonium hydroxide, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). Although the name ammonium hydroxide suggests an alkali with composition [NH4+][OH−], it is actually impossible to isolate samples of NH4OH. The ions NH4+ and OH− do not account for a significant fraction of the total amount of ammonia except in extremely dilute solutions.
Diluted (1–3%) ammonia is also an ingredient of numerous cleaning agents, including many window cleaning formulas. Because aqueous ammonia is a gas dissolved in water, as the water evaporates from a window, the gas evaporates also, leaving the window streak-free.
In addition to use as an ingredient in cleansers with other cleansing ingredients, ammonia in water is also sold as a cleaning agent by itself, usually labeled as simply “ammonia”. It may be sold plain, lemon-scented (and typically colored yellow), or pine-scented (green). Commonly available ammonia with soap added is known as “cloudy ammonia”.
Ascorbyl palmitate (CAS 137-66-6)
Ascorbyl palmitate is an ester formed from ascorbic acid and palmitic acid creating a fat-soluble form of vitamin C. In addition to its use as a source of vitamin C, it is also used as an antioxidant food additive (E number E304). It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU, the U.S., Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
Ascorbyl palmitate is also marketed as “vitamin C ester”. It is synthesized by acylation vitamin C using different acyl donors.
Benzoic acid (CAS 65-85-0)
Benzoic acid /bɛnˈzoʊ.ɪk/ is a white (or colorless) solid with the formula C6H5CO2H. It is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time its only source. Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Salts of benzoic acid are used as food preservatives. Benzoic acid is an important precursor for the industrial synthesis of many other organic substances. The salts and esters of benzoic acid are known as benzoates.
Beta alanine (CAS 107-95-9)
β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is attached to the β-carbon (i.e. the carbon two atoms away from the carboxylate group) instead of the more usual α-carbon for alanine (α-alanine). The IUPAC name for β-alanine is 3-aminopropanoic acid. Unlike its counterpart α-alanine, β-alanine has no stereocenter.
Beta carotene (CAS 7235-40-7)
Beta carotene is an organic, strongly coloured red-orange pigment abundant in fungi, plants, and fruits. It is a member of the carotenes, which are terpenoids (isoprenoids), synthesized biochemically from eight isoprene units and thus having 40 carbons. Among the carotenes, β-carotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. β-Carotene is biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate.
Calcium formate (CAS 544-17-2)
Calcium formate is the calcium salt of formic acid. It is also known as E238. Under this E number it is used as an animal feed preservative within EU, but not in foods intended for people. Calcium formate is stable at room temperature, is inflammable and forms orthorhombic crystals. The mineral form is very rare and called formicaite, and is known from a few boron deposits.
Calcium formate is used within EU as an animal feed preservative. It acidifies the feed thus preventing microbe growth and increasing shelf life. About 15 g of calcium formate addition per kg of feed lowers its pH by one. 15 g/kg is the maximum recommended feed concentration within EU – this level is thought to be safe for pigs, chickens, fish and ruminants. The compound is not environmentally harmful in feed use at these levels. Calcium formate prevents the growth bacteria such as E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae in growth mediums. It also prevents the growth of fungi like Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. However, the relevance of these experimental observations to feed preservation is not known.
Calcium lactate pentahydrate (CAS 28305-25-1)
Calcium lactate is produced by mixing lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. It has high solubility and dissolving speed, high bioavailability, good taste. It’s a good source of calcium used widely in food &beverage, health products, pharmaceutical and others fields.
– Chemical name: Calcium Lactate
– Standard: Food grade FCC
– Appearance: crystalline powder
– Color: white to cream color
– Odor: almost odorless
– Solubility: Freely soluble in hot water
– Molecular formula: C6H10CaO6·5H2O
– Molecular weight: 308.3 g/mol
Calcium Phosphate Monohydrate (CAS 7758-23-8)
Monocalcium phosphate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(H2PO4)2 (“AMCP” or “CMP-A” for anhydrous monocalcium phosphate). It is commonly found as the monohydrate (“MCP” or “MCP-M”), Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O. Both salts are colourless solids. They are used mainly as superphosphate fertilizers and are also popular leavening agents.
Acid calcium phosphate
Calcium acid phosphate
Monobasic calcium phosphate
Phosphoric acid, calcium salt (2:1)
Calcium propionate (CAS 4075-81-4)
As a food additive, it is listed as E number 282 in the Codex Alimentarius. Calcium propionate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including: bread, other baked goods, processed meat, whey, and other dairy products. In agriculture, it is used, amongst other things, to prevent milk fever in cows and as a feed supplement. Propionates prevent microbes from producing the energy they need, like benzoates do. However, unlike benzoates, propionates do not require an acidic environment.
Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C6H8O7
It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms.More than two million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. It is used widely as an acidifier, as a flavoring and a chelating agent.
Citric Acid Monohydrate (CAS 5949-29-1)
Citric Acid Monohydrate is a tricarboxylic acid found in citrus fruits. Citric acid is used as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations due to its antioxidant properties. It maintains stability of active ingredients and is used as a preservative. It is also used as an acidulant to control pH and acts as an anticoagulant by chelating calcium in blood.
Manganese chloride tetrahydrate (CAS 13446-34-9)
Cobalt(II) chloride is an inorganic compound of cobalt and chlorine, with the formula CoCl2. It is a red crystalline solid.
Because of the ease of the hydration/dehydration reaction, and the resulting color change, cobalt chloride is used as an indicator for water in desiccants.
Niche uses of cobalt chloride include its role in organic synthesis and electroplating objects with cobalt metal.
Cobalt chloride has been classified as a substance of very high concern by the European Chemicals Agency as it is a suspected carcinogen.
Cobalt Sulphate (CAS 10026-24-1)
Cobalt sulfates are important intermediates in the extraction of cobalt from its ores. Thus, crushed, partially refined ores are treated with sulfuric acid to give red-colored solutions containing cobalt sulfate.
Hydrated cobalt(II) sulfate is used in the preparation of pigments, as well as in the manufacture of other cobalt salts. Cobalt pigment is used in porcelains and glass. Cobalt(II) sulfate is used in storage batteries and electroplating baths, sympathetic inks, and as an additive to soils and animal feeds. For these purposes, the cobalt sulfate is produced by treating cobalt oxide with sulfuric acid.
Being commonly available commercially, the heptahydrate is a routine source of cobalt in coordination chemistry.
Copper chloride dihydrate (CAS 10125-13-0)
Copper(II) chloride is the chemical compound with the chemical formula CuCl2. The anhydrous form is yellowish brown but slowly absorbs moisture to form a blue-green dihydrate.
Both the anhydrous and the dihydrate forms occur naturally as the very rare minerals tolbachite and eriochalcite, respectively.
Copper Sulphate Pentahydrate (CAS 7758-99-8)
Copper(II) sulfate, also known as copper sulphate, are the inorganic compounds with the chemical formula CuSO4(H2O)x, where x can range from 0 to 5. The pentahydrate (x = 5) is the most common form. Older names for this compound include blue vitriol, bluestone, vitriol of copper, and Roman vitriol.
The pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. It exothermically dissolves in water to give the aquo complex [Cu(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry. The structure of the solid pentahydrate reveals a polymeric structure wherein copper is again octahedral but bound to four water ligands. The Cu(II)(H2O)4 centers are interconnected by sulfate anions to form chains. Anhydrous copper sulfate is a light grey powder.
Corn starch, maize starch, or cornflour (British English) is the starch derived from corn (maize) grain. The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel. Corn starch is a common food ingredient, often used to thicken sauces or soups, and to make corn syrup and other sugars. Corn starch is versatile, easily modified, and finds many uses in industry such as adhesives, in paper products, as an anti-sticking agent, and textile manufacturing. It has medical uses as well, such as to supply glucose for people with glycogen storage disease.
Formic Acid 85% (CAS 64-18-6)
Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid, and has the chemical formula H2CO2. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most notably in some ants. The word “formic” comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. Esters, salts, and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates. Industrially, formic acid is produced from methanol.
Fumaric Acid (CAS 110-17-8)
Fumaric acid is an organic compound with the formula HO2CCH=CHCO2H. A white solid, fumaric acid occurs widely in nature. It has a fruit-like taste and has been used as a food additive. Its E number is E297. The salts and esters are known as fumarates. Fumarate can also refer to the C4H2O2−4 ion (in solution). Fumaric acid is the trans isomer of butenedioic acid, while maleic acid is the cis isomer.
Information Industries: Pharmaceutical industry, Food industry , Feed industry CAS number: 5996-10-1 WE number: 200-075-1 Chemical formula: C6H12O6·H2O Molar mass: …
Glycine (CAS 56-40-6)
Glycine is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. It is the simplest stable amino acid (carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. For the same reason, it is the most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter – interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction.
Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is glycyl.
Isopropyl palmitate (CAS 142-91-6)
Isopropyl palmitate is a fatty acid ester obtained by the formal condensation of carboxy group of palmitic acid with propan-2-ol. Metabolite observed in cancer metabolism. It has a role as a human metabolite. It is a fatty acid ester and an isopropyl ester. It derives from a hexadecanoic acid. The chemical formula is CH3(CH2)14COOCH(CH3)2.
Lactic acid 50% (CAS 598-82-3)
Lactic acid is an organic acid. It has a molecular formula CH3CH(OH)COOH. It is white in the solid state and it is miscible with water. When in the dissolved state, it forms a colorless solution. Production includes both artificial synthesis as well as natural sources. Lactic acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) due to the presence of a hydroxyl group adjacent to the carboxyl group. It is used as a synthetic intermediate in many organic synthesis industries and in various biochemical industries. The conjugate base of lactic acid is called lactate.
In solution, it can ionize by loss of a proton to produce the lactate ion CH3CH(OH)CO−2. Compared to acetic acid, its pKa is 1 unit less, meaning lactic acid is ten times more acidic than acetic acid. This higher acidity is the consequence of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the α-hydroxyl and the carboxylate group.
Magnesium oxide (CAS 1309-48-4)
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide). It has an empirical formula of MgO and consists of a lattice of Mg2+ ions and O2− ions held together by ionic bonding. Magnesium hydroxide forms in the presence of water (MgO + H2O → Mg(OH)2), but it can be reversed by heating it to remove moisture.
Magnesium oxide was historically known as magnesia alba (literally, the white mineral from Magnesia – other sources give magnesia alba as MgCO3), to differentiate it from magnesia negra, a black mineral containing what is now known as manganese.
While “magnesium oxide” normally refers to MgO, magnesium peroxide MgO2 is also known as a compound. According to evolutionary crystal structure prediction, MgO2 is thermodynamically stable at pressures above 116 GPa (gigapascals), and a semiconducting suboxide Mg3O2 is thermodynamically stable above 500 GPa. Because of its stability, MgO is used as a model system for investigating vibrational properties of crystals.
Magnesium Sulfate Anhydrate (CAS 7487-88-9)
Magnesium sulfate or magnesium sulphate (in British English) is a chemical compound, a salt with the formula MgSO4, consisting of magnesium cations Mg2+ (20.19% by mass) and sulfate anions SO2−4. It is a white crystalline solid, soluble in water but not in ethanol.
Magnesium sulfate is usually encountered in the form of a hydrate MgSO4·nH2O, for various values of n between 1 and 11. The most common is the heptahydrate MgSO4·7H2O, known as Epsom salt, which is a household chemical with many traditional uses, including bath salts.
The main use of magnesium sulfate is in agriculture, to correct soils deficient in magnesium (an essential plant nutrient because of the role of magnesium in chlorophyll and photosynthesis). The monohydrate is favored for this use; by the mid 1970s, its production was 2.3 million tons per year. The anhydrous form and several hydrates occur in nature as minerals, and the salt is a significant component of the water from some springs.